A pulse injection of an inert tracer potassium bromide was introduced at the inlet (c0,KBr = 0.303 mol/m3; Q = 5 mL/min; total V = 100 mL) with a syringe pump LAMBDA VIT-FIT.

Markale, I., Carrel, M., Kurz, D. L., Morales, V. L., Holzner, M. & Jiménez-Martínez, J. (2023). Internal Biofilm Heterogeneities Enhance Solute Mixing and Chemical Reactions in Porous Media. Environmental Science & Technology 2023 57 (21), 8065-8074

Keywords: permeability, stochastic modeling, X-ray tomography, biofilm internal heterogeneity, nutrient uptake

LAMBDA VIT-FIT Syringe pumps were used to feed the individually preheated reactants from storage flasks through temperature controlled FEP tubing into the microreactor.

Frede, T.A., Greive, M. & Kockmann, N. (2022). Measuring Kinetics in Flow Using Isoperibolic Flow Calorimetry. Reactions 2022, 3, 525–536.

Keywords: automation; continuous flow; compartmental modelling; flow calorimetry; kinetics; microreactors

Pure water is pumped using a BlueShadow and pure water enriched with potassium iodide (KI) is pumped by LAMBDA VIT-FIT into the rotating helically coiled tube (HCT) that is mounted into the computed tomography scanner (Skyscan 1275).

Schuler, J., Herath, J. & Kockmann, N. (2021). 3D investigations of microscale mixing in helically coiled capillaries. Journal of Flow Chemistry 2021;
DOI: 10.1007/s41981-021-00161-6

Keywords in publication: Helically coiled capillary; Micro-computed tomography; Dean flow; Radial mixing; Capillary flow reactor; Local concentration fields

Polyimide‐foil‐based microfluidic mixing: LAMBDA VIT-FIT syringe pumps with 50-mL syringes (Henke-Ject) for 25 °C preheated feed.

Bobers, J., Forys, E., Oldach, B. & Kockmann, N. (2021). Application of Polyimide-based Microfluidic Devices on Acid-catalyzed Hydrolysis of Dimethoxypropane. Chem. Ing. Tech. 2021, 93, No. 5, 796–801;
DOI: 10.1002/cite.202000224

Keywords of publication: Acid-catalyzed hydrolysis, Microreactor, Mixing, Polyimide foil.

LAMBDA VIT-FIT pumps isoamyl alcohol (> 98.5 %) at continuous volumetric flow rates (10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 227.9 μL/min) with a 50 ml syringe into a thermal insulated water bath with microreactor setup.

Lee, C.S., Vorwerk, C., Yusoff Azudin, N., Ahmad, N.A. & Abd Shukor, S.R. (2021). Kinetics Modelling of Uncatalyzed Esterification of Acetic Anhydride with Isoamyl Alcohol in a Microreactor System. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, Volume 9, Issue 3, June 2021, 105219; DOI: 10.1016/j.jece.2021.105219

Keywords of publication: Kinetic Modelling, Esterification, Solvent free, Non-enzymatic, Microreactor, Process Intensification.

Aerosol: VIT-FIT syringe pump for Aerosol generation

VIT-FIT syringe pump for spray-drying of an aqueous solution containing HDM allergen and lactose to generate aerosol

Lueer K, Biller H, Casper A, Windt H, Mueller M, Badorrek P, Haefner D, Framke T, Koch A, Ziehr H, Krug N. Safety, efficacy and repeatability of a novel house dust mite allergen challenge technique in the Fraunhofer Allergen Challenge Chamber. Allergy. 2016 Jun 1.
Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), Hannover, Germany; Allergopharma GmbH & Co. KG, Reinbek, Germany; Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease, Hannover (BREATH)

Keywords: aerosol generation; allergen challenge; allergic rhinitis; clinical trial; immunotherapy; environmental challenge chamber; allergen challenge chamber; house dust mite; drug development;

Aerosol Science and Technology: VIT-FIT HP injection system for production of aerosol with Bacillus thuringiensis spores

Roux, J-M., Kaspari, O., Heinrich, R., Hanschmann, N., Grunow, R. 2013. Investigation of a New Electrostatic Sampler for Concentrating Biological and Non-Biological Aerosol Particles. Aerosol Science and Technology, 47:5 (2013), 463-471 CEA Grenoble, Grenoble, France and Robert Koch-Institute, Berlin, Germany.

Chemical reactor injection and kinetic studies with VIT-FIT syringe pumps

Syringe pump LAMBDA VIT-FIT connected to a diffuser (wood or ceramic) with selected speed of 0.8 mm/min, used for homogeneous dispersion of bubbles

Souzy, Nicolas. Experimental study and improvement of mass transfer in vertical bubble columns. PhD diss., Lyon 1, 2014.
LMFA - UMR CNRS 5509, France.

Keywords: Vertical bubble column, gas-liquid interfacial area, Micro Bubble Generator, CO2 mass transfer, data treatment correction, PLIF

Precursor solutions (Gallium acetylacetonate and titanium isopropoxide dissolved in xylene) were injected at 5 ml/min by VIT-FIT syringe pump through the FSP nozzle to investigate the catalytic behaviour of TiO2 supported Ga2O3 in ODHE

Rajesh Koirala, Robert Buechel, Frank Krumeich, Sotiris E. Pratsinis, and Alfons Baiker, Oxidative Dehydrogenation of Ethane with CO2 over Flame-Made Ga-Loaded TiO2, ACS Catal. 2015, 5, 690−702. ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

Keywords: oxidative dehydrogenation; ethane; carbon dioxide; gallium oxide; flame spray pyrolysis

Usage of LAMBDA VIT-FIT syringe pump for salt injection in order to achieve good reproducibility of the initial aggregation kinetics

Soos M., Moussa A. S., Ehrl L., Sefcik J. , Wu H. , Morbidelli M. 2007. Effect of shear rate on aggregate size and morphology investigated under turbulent conditions in stirred tank. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. December 2007, Volume 319, Issue 2, pp 587 - 599.

Keywords: Aggregation; Breakage; Turbulent conditions; Polystyrene particles; Shear rate effect; Solid volume fraction effect; Aggregation efficiency; Steady-state reversibility; Aggregate morphology; Light scattering; Image analysis; Aggregate cohesive force

Injection of an Al(NO3)3 solution into the coagulator by a LAMBDA VIT-FIT syringe pump, that was set to the maximum speed, corresponding to an injection time of approximately 15s

Waldner M.H., Sefcik J., Soos M., Morbidelli M. 2005. Initial growth kinetics and structure of colloidal aggregates in a turbulent coagulator.
Institut für Chemie- und Bioingenieurswissenschaften, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zürich, ETH Hönggerberg/HCI, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland. Volume 156, Issues 2–3, 23 August 2005, Pages 226–234

Keywords: Aggregation kinetics; Stirred tank; Static light scattering; Structure factor; Fractal dimension

Using a LAMBDA VIT-FIT syringe pump as the final control element in order to manipulate the flow rate of sodium hydroxide into the SSIMM micro-reactor

Barzin R., Abd Shukor S.R. 2010. New spectrophotometric measurement method for process control of miniaturized intensified systems. School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Penang, Malaysia. Volume 146, Issue 1, 8 April 2010, Pages 403–409.

Keywords: Process intensification; Process control; Spectrophotometric measurement; Microsystems

Carrying of the salt injection with a LAMBDA VIT-FIT syringe pump to achieve a good reproducibility of the initial aggregation kinetics applying the maximum speed

Moussa A.S., Soos M., Sefcik J., Morbidelli M., Effect of Solid Volume Fraction on Aggregation and Breakage in Colloidal Suspensions in Batch and Continuous Stirred Tanks, Langmuir 2007 23 (4), 1664-1673.  ETH Zurich, Switzerland; University of Strathclyde, UK.

LAMBDA VIT-FIT syringe pump used for salt injection to achieve a good reproducibility of the initial aggregation kinetics applying the maximum speed

Moussa A.S., Soos M., Sefcik J., Morbidelli M., Ehrl. L, Wu. H., Dynamic Response Studies of Aggregation and Breakage Dynamics in Colloidal Dispersions in Stirred Tanks, Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology. Journal Number 4. Vol. 29. Apr 2008. Pages 605-610.  ETH Zurich, Switzerland; University of Strathclyde, UK.

Keywords: Root‐mean‐square radius of gyration, aggregation, breakage, steady-state reversibility, aggregate structure

Usage of LAMBDA VIT-FIT syringe pump for the salt injection to achieve a good reproducibility of the initial aggregation kinetics applying the maximum speed

Ehrl L., Soos M., Morbidelli M., Dependence of Aggregate Strength, Structure, and Light Scattering Properties on Primary Particle Size under Turbulent Conditions in Stirred Tank, Langmuir, 2008, 24 (7), pp 3070–3081. ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

A LAMBDA VIT-FIT syringe pump with a driving force of 300 N is used with the advantage that different syringes run with this type and the driving velocity can be chosen in 0 and 999 increments. The characteristic functions of four typical types of syringes (2, 5, 10 and 20 ml) were recorded

Bauer M., Heusel G., Mangold S., Bertagnolli H., Spectroscopic set-up for simultaneous UV-Vis/(Q)EXAFS in situ and in operando studies of homogeneous reactions under laboratory conditions, J. Synchrotron Rad. (2010). 17, 273-279. University of Stuttgart, Germany.

Keywords: two-dimensional spectroscopy; QEXAFS; UV/Vis; in operando.

Microparticle studies

Programmable VIT-FIT syringe pump was used to add the methyl methacrylate (MMA) at a flow rate of 0.1 g/min to synthesis the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles

Thomas K. Villiger, Massimo Morbidelli and Miroslav Soos, Experimental Determination of Maximum Effective Hydrodynamic Stress in Multiphase Flow Using Shear Sensitive Aggregates, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), DOI: 10.1002/aic.14753  ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

Keywords: Aggregate breakage; stirred tank; maximum hydrodynamic stress; contracting nozzle; gas-liquid flow; bubble rise; bubble burst; gas jet velocity

VIT-FIT programmable syringe pump to analyse the breakage and restructuring of colloidal aggregates in dilute conditions under shear

Yogesh M. Harshe, Marco Lattuada, and Miroslav Soos. Experimental and Modeling Study of Breakage and Restructuring of Open and Dense Colloidal Aggregates. Langmuir. 2011 May 17; 27(10):5739-52  ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

Keywords: colloidal aggregates, confocal laser scanning microscopy, hydrodynamic stress, coagulation

VIT-FIT syringe pump was used to investigate the breakup of dense aggregates in an extensional flow through a contracting nozzle

Miroslav Soos, Lyonel Ehrl, Matthäus U. Bäbler, and Massimo Morbidelli. Aggregate Breakup in a Contracting Nozzle. Langmuir 2010, 26(1), 10–18 ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

Keywords: Cluster Mass Distribution, Hydrodynamic Stress, Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulations, Reynolds numbers, Small-angle light scattering (SALS)

Polymer research

The LAMBDA VIT-FIT syringe pump injects MMA/EGDMA (80%/20%) monomer mixture into the polymerization reactor using a feed rate of 2.5 mL/min.

Wilson, J. F., Zahradnik, B., Srom, O., Jaquet, B., Hassouna, F., Hrdlicka, Z., Kosek, J. & Soos, M. (2021). Study of the Shear-Thinning Effect between Polymer Nanoparticle Surfaces during Shear-Induced Aggregation. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research Article ASAP; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.1c00232

Keywords: Polymer Nanoparticles; Polymerization; Monomer Mixture; Adhesion Mechanism; Aggregates; PMMA; PBA; Temperature; Material Fusion; Shear Rate; Shear-Thinning Effect

Cyclic bending tests of Ag–PMMA nanocomposite films were conducted by programmable motor of LAMBDA VIT-FIT syringe pump 

Blattmann, C. O., G. A. Sotiriou, and S. E. Pratsinis. Rapid synthesis of flexible conductive polymer nanocomposite films. Nanotechnology 26, no. 12 (2015): 125601. ETH Zürich, Switzerland and Harvard University, USA.

Keywords: silver nanoparticle, percolation, flame-spray pyrolysis, direct deposition

LAMBDA VIT-FIT programmable syringe pump operated at a defined flow rate to induce aggregation under shear stress to prepare the macroporous micro particles

Alexandros Lamprou, Itır Köse, Zoé Peña Aguirre, Giuseppe Storti, Massimo Morbidelli, and Miroslav Soos. Macroporous Polymer Particles via Reactive Gelation under Shear: Effect of Primary Particle Properties and Operating Parameters. Langmuir. 2014 Nov 12. ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

Keywords: colloidal dispersion, polymeric nanoparticles, atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP); critical coagulation concentration (CCC); diffusion-limited cluster aggregation; inverse size-exclusion chromatography; Static light scattering;

Two monomeric mixtures were fed at a rate of 0.056 ml/min for latex preparation followed by induced aggregation under shear by addition of gradient salts at a rate of 4.23 ml/min using LAMBDA VIT-FIT programmable syringe pumps for the synthesis of macroporous copolymer resins

Alexandros Lamprou, Itır Köse, Giuseppe Storti, Massimo Morbidelli, and Miroslav Soos, 2014. Synthesis of Macroporous Polymer Particles using Reactive Gelation under Shear. Langmuir. 2014 Jun 5.  Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.

Keywords: macroporous particles, polystyrene-co-polydivinylbenzene, crosslinked polymer resins, monolith, reactive gelation, latex aggregation, RLCA, DLCA, fractal aggregates, cluster breakage, post-polymerization, porogen, pore size distribution, nitrogen sorption, mercury porosimetry

Mounting of the initiator solution by two programmable single syringe pumps LAMBDA VIT-FIT

Diederich, V. E., Studer, P., Kern, A., Lattuada, M., Storti, G., Sharma, Snedeker J.G., Morbidelli, M., Bioactive polyacrylamide hydrogels with gradients in mechanical stiffness, Biotechnology and bioengineering. Volume 110, Issue 5, pages 1508–1519, May 2013 ETH Zurich, Switzerland and University of Bath, UK.

Keywords: hydrogel; mechanical gradient; cell spreading

Semi-batch reactions with addition at a constant flow rate using the LAMBDA VIT-FIT syringe pump

Bojana Apostolovic, Francesca Quattrini, Alessandro Butté, Giuseppe Storti and Massimo Morbidelli, Ab initio Emulsion Polymerization by RAFT (Reversible Addition–Fragmentation Chain Transfer) through the Addition of Cyclodextrins, Helvetica Chimica Acta, Volume 89, Issue 8, pages 1641–1659, August 2006. Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich, Switzerland.

Keywords: Living radical polymerization; Reversible Addition Fragmentation chain Transfer (RAFT); Cyclodextrins; Emulsion polymerization; Polymerization; Block copolymers